While making paper by hand dates back to China ca. 105 C.E., the practice has only been used as a form of artistic expression in its own right for the past century. Dard Hunter is considered a leading 20th-century authority on the craft of handmade paper after his publication of Old Papermaking (1923) and Papermaking by Hand in America (1950), in which he prepared every aspect of each book himself. Hand papermaking in the United States gained further popularity in the 1960s and ’70s through the establishment of small-scale paper mills such as Twinrocker and Dieu Donné and through papermaking studios within the higher academy. At the same time, the use of handmade paper as an art medium in itself, rather than a mere substrate, grew as artists experimented in two-and three-dimensional forms, often creating sculptural works and installations.